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DOx Phenylethylamines

G.Patton

Well-known member
Expert

Introduction

This topic is second part of DOx-phenylethylamines series such as DOB, DOM, DOI and DOC where dosages, effects, duration time, pharmacodynamics and etc were described.

DOB
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General

4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (also known as dimethoxybromoamphetamine, brolamfetamine, bromo-DMA, and commonly as DOB) is a psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class that produces unusually long-lived psychedelic effects when administered. It is a member of the DOx family of psychedelic amphetamines. While DOB had first been synthesized in 1967 and briefly tested in 1971, it took until the 1991 publication of the book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved") by Alexander Shulgin to be documented in-depth.

Today, DOB is used as a recreational drug and an entheogen. It is still rarely sold online, but is more commonly found in the streets in the form of misrepresented LSD due to its ability to fit onto similar-sized blotter paper. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DOB in humans. Along with its sensitive dose-response, unusually long and unpredictable duration, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already very experienced with using hallucinogens. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Pharmacodynamics and neurochemistry

DOB's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2 receptor family as a partial agonist. DOB appears to be quite selective for the 5-HT2B receptor and is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. It has been suggested that DOB is a prodrug metabolized in the lungs. Due to its selectivity, DOB is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Excessively high doses of this hallucinogen may cause diffuse arterial spasm. The vasospasm responded readily to intra-arterial and intravenous vasodilators, such as tolazoline.

Effects

The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses.

Physical effects
  • Stimulation - DOB is usually considered to be extremely stimulating at levels which do not become overwhelming and are encouraged instead of forced. This results in a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands at high dosages, but encourages the person to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. The level of stimulation varies between users, with some people reporting it to be somewhat similar to amphetamine in its intensity and others reporting that it is extremely subtle even at higher dosages. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin are generally sedating and relaxed.
  • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of DOB is manifested as somewhat intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics such as LSD. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses a person’s entire body. It is usually static in its position and felt over every square inch of the skin as if it were coming from behind the user's body. Occasionally, however, it manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves.
  • Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induced as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort without any apparent reason. DOB and other psychedelic amphetamines tend to lean towards physical dysphoria more so than other psychedelics.
  • Changes in felt bodily form
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most DOB experiences.
  • Stamina enhancement
  • Bodily pressures
  • Temperature regulation suppression
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased perspiration
  • Muscle contractions
  • Muscle spasms
  • Muscle cramps
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is typically reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Stomach cramps
  • Vasoconstriction - This effect is reported to be more common than with other psychedelics and can feel prominent and uncomfortable.
  • Dehydration
  • Increased salivation
  • Pupil dilation
  • Teeth grinding
  • Diarrhea
  • Restless legs
Visual effects
Enhancements

  • Visual acuity enhancement
  • Colour enhancement
  • Pattern recognition enhancement
  • Distortions
  • Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
  • Colour shifting
  • Depth perception distortions
  • Perspective distortions
  • Symmetrical texture repetition
  • Tracers
  • After images
  • Brightness alteration
  • Diffraction
Geometry
  • DOB visual geometry can be described as more similar in appearance to that of LSD, 25I-NBOMe or 2C-B than that of mescaline, psilocin or DMT. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, algorithmic in form, synthetic in feel, brightly lit, multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equally rounded and angular in its corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. Higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8A visual geometry over Level 8B.
Hallucinatory states
  • DOB and other substituted amphetamines produce a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more or less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects include:
  • Transformations
  • Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOB is extremely high in internal hallucinations when approaching higher dosages. They are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensibly described through its variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
  • External hallucinations - These are often present during the comedown and can include shadow people, among other indescribable beings. These external hallucinations are often lucid, interactive, autonomous, and robust. As sleep deprivation and stimulant psychosis surface, a trip sitter should accompany individuals sensitive to stimulants for the last part of the comedown. The visual effects of psychosis have been reported to blend into the psychedelic visuals around the 16-24 hour mark, sometimes accompanied by auditory hallucinations.
Cognitive effects
The headspace of DOB is described by many as one of prominent mental stimulation and a powerful enhancement of a person's current mental state. Many users report that it may not be as deep as other traditional psychedelics such as LSD or psilocin, and that it is comparatively empty regarding its insightfulness.

  • Anxiety & Paranoia
  • Analysis enhancement
  • Conceptual thinking
  • Thought acceleration
  • Thought connectivity
  • Cognitive euphoria
  • Analysis suppression
  • Emotion enhancement
  • Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This component is inconsistently manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are much weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but still prove strong enough to provide therapeutic effects.
  • Increased music appreciation
  • Increased sense of humor
  • Immersion enhancement
  • Novelty enhancement
  • Suggestibility enhancement
  • Language suppression
  • Memory suppression
  • Ego death - While DOB is technically able to produce states of ego dissolution, it tends to more often than not develop only in extremely high doses, with grave physical and mental side effects being apparent and is often of a terrifying nature.
  • Time distortion
  • Thought loops
  • Wakefulness
Transpersonal states are reported to be less consistent and reproducible than on other psychedelics like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms. This can perhaps be attributed to the noticeable physical and stimulating effects that this substance produces, which tends to interfere with the ability for the user to immerse themselves in the experience fully.
  • Existential self-realization
  • Unity and interconnectedness
Trip duration: 18 — 30 h.

Dosage and methods of use: 1 — 3 mg

The combination of which should be avoided:

  • Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following lists some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
  • Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of DOB. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
  • Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold, and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.

DOM

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General

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (also known as DOM and STP or "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class. DOM is a member of the DOx family of compounds which are known for their high potency, long duration, and mixture of psychedelic and stimulant effects. It produces its effects by acting on serotonin receptors in the brain.

DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin. It attained some popularity during the summer of 1967 under the name "STP" ("Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace"), but its use was short-lived due to its side effects. In 1991, the synthesis and pharmacology of DOM was published in Shulgin's book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved"). Over the years, DOM has gained a reputation for being a highly dose-sensitive psychedelic that is often sold on blotting paper and known for its strong visuals, body load and neutral, analytical headspace. Many reports also indicate that the effects of this chemical may be overly difficult to use for those who are not already experienced with psychedelics.

Pharmacodynamics and neurochemistry

DOM is a selective partial agonist at the 5-HT2 receptor family. Its psychedelic effects are mediated by its agonistic properties at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, but less so on the 5-HT2C receptor. Due to its selectivity, DOM is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. DOM is a chiral molecule, and R-(-)-DOM is the more active enantiomer, functioning as a potent agonist of the serotonin family of receptors (mainly of the 5-HT2 subtype). However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

The 2,6-dimethoxy positional isomer of DOM, known as Ψ-DOM, is also mentioned in PiHKAL as being active, as is the alpha-ethyl homologue Ariadne. Analogues where the methoxy groups at the 2,5- positions of the aromatic ring have been altered have also been synthesised and tested as part of an effort to identify the binding mode of DOM at the 5-HT2A receptor. Both the 2- and 5- O-desmethyl derivatives 2-DM-DOM and 5-DM-DOM, and the 2- and 5- ethyl analogues 2-Et-DOM and 5-Et-DOM have been tested, but in all cases were significantly less potent than the corresponding methoxy compound, showing the importance of the oxygen lone pairs in 5-HT2A binding.

There is a strong implication that some metabolic conversion occurs in the lung, and it is only after this that the truly active metabolite is available for central action. This is consistent with the relatively slow onset of effect, and the very long duration of action.

Effects

Physical effects
  • Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, DOM is usually considered to be mildly stimulating at levels which do not become overwhelming, encouraging users to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. In comparison, it is more stimulating than psychedelics like psilocin, but less stimulating than most compounds of the DOx family.
  • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of DOM is reported to be somewhat intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics. However, in comparison to DOC and the overwhelming forcefulness of 2C-E, it can be considered relatively mild and natural in feel. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses one's entire body. This is coupled with a euphoric, fast-moving, sharp and location-specific tingling sensation. It is usually felt over every square inch of the skin, but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves.
  • Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently present at moderate levels throughout most DOM experiences. If Level 8A visuals are reached, an intense sensation of suddenly becoming aware of and being able to feel every single nerve ending across a person's entire body all at once is consistently present.
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Bodily pressures
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Temperature regulation suppression
  • Increased bodily temperature
  • Increased perspiration
  • Muscle contractions
  • Muscle spasms
  • Muscle cramps
  • Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is typically reported at moderate to high dosages and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Vasoconstriction - This effect is usually only present at higher dosages, but can be particularly uncomfortable and persistent.
  • Dehydration
  • Increased salivation
  • Pupil dilation
  • Teeth grinding
  • Diarrhea
Visual effects
  • Reports describe DOM as having less pronounced visuals proportional to its accompanying physical and mental effects at low to moderate dosages. Higher ones do tend to display a unique set of visual effects which is not found with similar substances.
  • Enhancements
  • Acuity enhancement
  • Colour enhancement
  • Pattern recognition enhancement
Distortions
  • Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
  • Colour shifting
  • Depth perception distortions
  • Perspective distortions
  • Symmetrical texture repetition
  • Tracers
  • After images
  • Brightness alteration
  • Diffraction
  • Scenery slicing
Geometry
The visual geometry of DOM is described as being very unique and may share some similarity with 2C-D. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in style, equally algorithmic and abstract in form, equally synthetic and organic in style, structured in organization, brightly lit in lighting, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equal in rounded and angular corners, non-immersive in-depth and consistent in intensity. Higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of level 8A visual geometry over level 8B.

Hallucinatory states
DOM produces a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more or less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects include:
  • Transformations
  • Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, scenaries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOM is extremely high in its internal hallucinations when approaching higher dosages. This particular effect commonly contains hallucinations with scenarios, settings, concepts and autonomous entity contact. They can be comprehensively described in terms of their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability and geometry-based in appearance. They are more common within dark environments and can be described as internal in their manifestation, lucid in believability, interactive in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
Cognitive effects
  • The cognitive effects of DOM are described by many as a combination of prominent mental stimulation and a powerful enhancement of a person's current mental state.
  • Analysis enhancement
  • Empathy, love, and sociability enhancement - This component is consistently manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are a little weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but still prove strong enough to provide long-lasting therapeutic effects.
  • Conceptual thinking
  • Emotion enhancement
  • Immersion enhancement
  • Novelty enhancement
  • Increased music appreciation
  • Memory suppression
  • Ego death - While DOM is technically able to produce states of ego dissolution, it tends to more often than not develop only in extremely high doses, with grave physical and mental side effects being apparent and is often of a terrifying nature.
  • Personal bias suppression
  • Thought acceleration
  • Thought connectivity
  • Time distortion
  • Wakefulness
Transpersonal effects
  • Transpersonal states on DOM are reported to occur less reliably and consistently than classical psychedelics. This can perhaps be attributed its the prominent physical and stimulating effects, which tends to interfere with the user's ability to fully immerse themselves in the experience.
  • Existential self-realization
  • Unity and interconnectedness
Trip duration: 14 — 20 h.

Dosage and methods of use: 3 — 10 mg

The combination of which should be avoided:

  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures, particularly in those who are predisposed to them.
  • Stimulants - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into uncontrollable anxiety, panic, thought loops and paranoia. This interaction may cause elevated risk of psychosis.
  • Lithium - Lithium is often used as treatment for bipolar disorder. It may possibly cause elevated risk of seizures and psychosis due to its glutaminergic and GABAergic effects.

DOI

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General

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (also known as DOI) is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class. It is a member of the DOx family of psychedelic amphetamines.

The synthesis of DOI was first described in 1972 and its usage in humans was first documented by Alexander Shulgin in the 1991 book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved"). DOI is very well-researched compared to most psychedelics. It is regularly used in research as a radioligand to map serotonin-2A receptors in the brain.

The effects of DOI are often compared to those of LSD, although notable differences can be distinguished. Besides the significantly longer duration, the experience is commonly reported to be more stimulating than LSD, with a more pronounced body load and a less complex headspace. The after effects include long-lasting residual stimulation and difficulty sleeping, which, depending on the dose and time taken during the day, may persist for days afterwards.

DOI is sometimes sold as a substitute for LSD, or even sold falsely as LSD. This can be dangerous because DOI does not have the same established safety profile as LSD. Along with its sensitive dose-response and unusually long duration, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already experienced with psychedelics. Therefore, it is highly advised to approach this highly dose-sensitive, and long-lasting psychedelic substance with the proper amount of precaution and harm reduction practices if using it.

Pharmacodynamics and neurochemistry

DOI's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy as an agonist at the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain the subject of ongoing scientific inquiry.

Besides its action as a psychedelic, DOI has been shown to be an extremely potent inhibitor of tumour necrosis factor-alpha inflammation at picomolar concentrations in cell studies. TNF-alpha is an important target for research into degenerative conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, where the disease process involves tissue damage through chronic inflammation. This could make DOI and other 5-HT2A agonists an entirely new area for development of novel treatments for these conditions.

DOI has also been shown to induce rapid growth and reorganization of dendritic spines and synaptic connections with other neurons, processes known to underlie neuroplasticity. A study demonstrated that DOI, DMT, LSD, and noribogaine (a metabolite of ibogaine) promote neuritogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.

Effects

Physical effects
  • Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, DOI is usually considered to be extremely stimulating at levels which are capable of becoming uncomfortable and overwhelming. This can result in a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands but encouraging one to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin are generally sedating and relaxed.
  • Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of DOI, often described as being notably more intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics such as LSD. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses a person’s entire body. It is usually felt over every square inch of the skin, but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves. However, this effect is reported to be very dose-dependent, as even slight increases in one's dose can result in persisting unpleasant feelings of over-stimulation.
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently reported at low to moderate levels throughout most DOI experiences.
  • Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes once the person has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate
  • Muscle contractions
  • Muscle spasms
  • Vasoconstriction - This effect is usually only present at higher dosages, but can be particularly uncomfortable when it manifests, and may persist throughout the main duration of the experience.
  • Appetite suppression
  • Dehydration
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased perspiration
  • Pupil dilation
  • Teeth grinding
  • Increased salivation
  • Seizure - This is a rarely observed effect but is known to happen in those who are presumably predisposed to them, especially while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated, or generally fatigued.
Visual effects
  • Enhancements
  • Colour enhancement
  • Pattern recognition enhancement
  • Visual acuity enhancement
  • Distortions
  • Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing)
  • Colour shifting
  • Depth perception distortions
  • Perspective distortions
  • Symmetrical texture repetition
  • Tracers
  • After images
  • Brightness alteration
  • Diffraction
Hallucinatory states
DOI and other psychedelic substituted amphetamines produce a full range of high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. This holds particularly true in comparison to other substances within the phenethylamine class. These effects include:

  • Transformations
  • Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOI is extremely high in internal hallucinations. They are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensibly described through its variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
  • External hallucinations - These are often present during the comedown and can include shadow people, among other indescribable beings. These external hallucinations are often lucid, interactive, autonomous, and robust. As sleep deprivation and stimulant psychosis surface, a trip sitter should accompany individuals sensitive to stimulants for the last part of the comedown. The visual effects of psychosis have been reported to blend into the psychedelic visuals around the 16-24 hour mark, sometimes accompanied by auditory hallucinations.
Cognitive effects
The cognitive effects of DOI are described by many as characterized as extreme mental stimulation combined with a powerful amplification of the user's current mental state. The total sum of these cognitive components regardless of the setting generally includes:

  • Conceptual thinking
  • Thought acceleration
  • Thought connectivity
  • Anxiety & Paranoia - This effect is not as common at low to moderate doses and is less likely to occur when the basic rules of set and setting are taken into account. It should be noted that this inconsistently induced effect is seemingly more likely to manifest when used with cannabis. This combination should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics, meaning that the user should adequately pace themselves with a fraction of their usual amount. It is commonly reported that psychedelics can to a certain extent counteract some of the perceived mental cloudiness or intoxicating effects of THC, causing the user to in turn use more cannabis than is needed which can often lead to an overwhelmingly anxious and paranoid headspace which can trigger a "bad trip".
  • Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This component is typically manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others, and only at lower, non-impairing doses. These feelings of sociability, affection and empathy tend to be weaker and less consistent than those found on substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but can still prove strong enough to provide long-lasting therapeutic effects.
  • Cognitive euphoria
  • Delusion
  • Analysis enhancement - This effect is consistent in its manifestation and outrospection dominant.
  • Emotion enhancement
  • Novelty enhancement
  • Personal bias suppression
  • Personal meaning enhancement
  • Immersion enhancement
  • Increased libido
  • Increased music appreciation
  • Increased sense of humor
  • Laughter fits - This can manifest prominently during a DOI experience, particularly during the come up phase, often resulting in bouts of uncontrollable giggles and laughter that can form a feedback loop if around others who are also under the influence.
  • Memory suppression
  • Ego death
  • Thought loops
  • Time distortion
  • Wakefulness
Auditory effects
  • Enhancements
  • Distortions
  • Hallucinations
Transpersonal effects
  • Existential self-realization
  • Unity and interconnectedness
Trip duration: 16 — 30 h.

Dosage and methods of use: 1.5 — 3 mg

The combination of which should be avoided:

  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of DOI. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
  • Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold, and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.

DOC

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General

4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (also known as DOC) is a lesser-known psychedelic substance of the amphetamine class. It is a member of the DOx family of psychedelic amphetamines, which are known for their long duration and mixture of psychedelic and stimulant effects.

DOC was first synthesized by a team at the University of Alberta in 1972. However, its usage in humans was not popularized until the 1991 publication PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved") by Alexander Shulgin. Preceding this, a 1989 forensic analysis of designer amphetamine samples identified DOC in Canadian drug seizures. DOC is known as a highly dose-sensitive psychedelic that is often sold in powder form or on blotting paper and known for its long duration (over 12-24 hours), strong visual effects, a unique form of stimulation, and a significant body load.

Along with its sensitive dose-response and unusually long duration, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already very experienced with hallucinogens. Therefore it is highly advised to approach this unusually dose-sensitive, and long-lasting psychedelic substance with the proper amount of precaution and harm reduction practices if choosing to use it.

Pharmacodynamics and neurochemistry

DOC acts as a selective 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor partial agonist. Its psychedelic effects are mediated via its actions on the 5-HT2A receptor. DOC's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Effects

Physical effects
  • Stimulation - DOC is usually reported to be extremely stimulating at levels which are capable of becoming uncomfortable and overwhelming. This can result in a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands but encouraging one to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities. In comparison, other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin are generally sedating and relaxed. The type of stimulation is generally encouraged, but can also present some forcefulness to it.
  • Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of DOC is manifested as somewhat intense in comparison to most classical psychedelics such as LSD. The sensation itself can be described as a constantly present yet somewhat mild energetic pins and needles sensation that encompasses a person’s entire body. It is usually felt over every square inch of the skin, but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves.
  • Physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably induced as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort without any apparent reason. DOC and other psychedelic amphetamines tend to lean towards physical dysphoria more so than other psychedelics.
  • Changes in felt bodily form
  • Bodily control enhancement
  • Tactile enhancement - Feelings of enhanced tactile sensation are consistently present at low to moderate levels throughout most DOC experiences.
  • Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes once the person has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
  • Vasoconstriction - This effect is usually only present at higher dosages, but can be particularly uncomfortable when it manifests, and may persist throughout as well as after the main duration of the experience.
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate
  • Appetite suppression
  • Increased perspiration
  • Muscle contractions
  • Muscle spasms
  • Muscle cramps
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Dehydration
  • Dry mouth
  • Temperature regulation suppression - This effect is more prominent than it is with other psychedelics like LSD.
  • Diarrhea
  • Teeth grinding
  • Restless legs
  • Pupil dilation
  • Increased salivation
  • Seizure - This is a rarely observed effect but is known to happen in those who are presumably predisposed to them, especially while in physically taxing conditions such as being dehydrated, undernourished, overheated, or generally fatigued.
Visual effects
The visuals of DOC are commonly described as being very simplistic, cartoon-like and linear, when compared to DOB or LSD.

Enhancements
  • Visual acuity enhancement
  • Colour enhancement
  • Pattern recognition enhancement
Distortions
  • Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
  • Colour shifting
  • Depth perception distortions
  • Perspective distortions
  • Symmetrical texture repetition
  • Tracers
  • After images
  • Brightness alteration
  • Diffraction
Geometry
  • The visual geometry encountered on DOC can be described as more similar in appearance to that of mescaline than that of ayahuasca, psilocybin mushrooms or LSD. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as intricate in complexity, abstract in form, synthetic in feel, structured in organization, brightly lit, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, sharp in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equally rounded and angular in its corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. At higher dosages, this geometry is significantly more likely to result in states of level 8B visual geometry over level 8A.
Hallucinatory states
DOC and other substituted amphetamines produce a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is more or less consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics. These effects include:
  • Transformations
  • Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - In comparison to other psychedelics such as LSD, DOC is extremely high in internal hallucinations when approaching higher dosages. They are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensibly described through its variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
  • External hallucinations - These are often present during the comedown and can include shadow people, among other indescribable beings. These external hallucinations are often lucid, interactive, autonomous, and robust. As sleep deprivation and stimulant psychosis surface, a trip sitter should accompany individuals sensitive to stimulants for the last part of the comedown. The visual effects of psychosis have been reported to blend into the psychedelic visuals around the 16-24 hour mark, sometimes accompanied by auditory hallucinations.
Cognitive effects
The cognitive effects of DOC are described by many as characterized as prominent mental stimulation combined with a powerful amplification of the user's current mental state. The total sum of these cognitive components regardless of the setting generally includes:
  • Anxiety & Paranoia - This effect is not as common at low to moderate doses and is less likely to occur when the basic rules of set and setting are taken into account. It should be noted that this inconsistently induced effect is seemingly more likely to manifest when used with cannabis. This combination should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics, meaning that the user should adequately pace themselves with a fraction of their usual amount. It is commonly reported that psychedelics can to a certain extent counteract some of the perceived mental cloudiness or intoxicating effects of THC, causing the user to in turn use more cannabis than is needed which can often lead to an overwhelmingly anxious and paranoid headspace which can trigger a "bad trip".
  • Conceptual thinking
  • Thought acceleration
  • Thought connectivity
  • Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This component is typically manifested only in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others, and only at lower, non-impairing doses. These feelings of sociability, affection, and empathy tend to be weaker and less consistent than those produced by substances such as MDMA and 2C-B, but can still prove strong enough to provide long-lasting therapeutic effects.
  • Cognitive euphoria
  • Analysis enhancement - This effect is consistent in its manifestation and outrospection dominant.
  • Novelty enhancement
  • Immersion enhancement
  • Emotion enhancement
  • Increased music appreciation
  • Increased sense of humor
  • Laughter fits - This can manifest prominently during a DOC experience, particularly during the come up phase, often resulting in bouts of uncontrollable giggles and laughter that can form a feedback loop if around others who are also under the influence.
  • Memory suppression
  • Ego death - While DOC is technically able to produce states of ego dissolution, it tends to more often than not develop only in extremely high doses, with grave physical and mental side effects being apparent and is often of a terrifying nature.
  • Increased libido
  • Time distortion
  • Wakefulness
Multisensory effects
Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience for those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.

Trip duration: 12 — 24 h.

Dosage and methods of use: 1.5 — 3 mg.

The combination of which should be avoided:

  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of DOC. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
  • Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold, and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.
 
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