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DMT. Part II. Clinical effects, doses, studies


According to various reports, which were carried out in the conditions of appropriate medical or research institutions, and as a result of retrospective studies using questionnaires, it was revealed
that administration of DMT at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg mostly induced visual images and there was no fundamental difference in images on closing and opening eyes. So, DMT users describe their psychedelic experience as follows: "I tried closing my eyes but saw the same things with my eyes closed as I did with them open". Different imagery can be visualized: certain and fully formed, recognizable, perhaps even familiar; the insides of computer boards, creatures having one eye, large or small, a pulsating diaphragm, double helices of DNA, a huge eye of a fly, tunnels and stairs, kaleidoscopic geometric patterns, colorful pink webs, geometric colors and so on. Auditory effects at this dose include usually high-frequency, "whimpering or squealing", "chirping or crunching" sounds, sometimes low-frequency sounds from familiar movies which have been stored in long-term memory. Most users pay attention to these sounds during the first couple of minutes, then they become part of the trip and are perceived as background sounds, which don't have any fundamental value in terms of all other effects of the substance at this dose. Somaesthetic effects include highly stimulating reactions to fear, feeling of “tightness or “lump in the throat”, some users describe them as “knocking breath out“during first 60 minutes from their onset. Users can experience a short-term feeling of pressure and heaviness in the chest first few minutes. They frequently lose consciousness, mostly experience hallucinatory imagery, absolute dissociation and a feeling of detachment from the reality. Women often describe some sexual effects, pleasant and hot feeling in genital area, feelings of flying or falling, weight loss, often there are sensations of heat and cold.

Initially, after DMT administration at a medium dose the first effects of the trip include a complex of effects, which is commonly called “breakthrough”. It involves a certain range of visual changes in perception, improved visual acuity, color intensity and intensity of ambient sounds, appearance of light, but progressive euphoria, some signs of anxiety (which sometimes tend intensify depending on different factors), “lightness in lower extremities”, improved image recognition, nausea (rarely). Then, light hallucination appears, as a rule, it is auditory, and it is manifested as faint crackling sounds, high-frequency repetitive sounds or monotonous sounds, the feeling of flying in an airplane or the sounds of a "spaceship". Breakthrough happens when the contact with the environment is lost completely and all that is left is experience of the trip. It is usually felt as another “reality” or “universe”. The person fully immerses in the DMT space. Breakthrough happens even at a dose of 25 mg, if it is administered successfully, however, it happens at a dose 50-60 mg as well. We have seen rather standard psychedelic effects so far – visual distortions, colour intensity, geometric hallucinations. In DMT space, everything becomes fascinating to the user. Then, it is followed by another stage called "The Waiting Room", it involves impaired orientation in time and, sometime, in space. At a high dose DMT can cause sharp decrease in visual acuity (usually at 5 minutes). The user visualizes a large range of various geometric transformations, changes in the appearance of people, objects, rooms. Vivid visual effects on closing eyes appear at higher dose. The user can feel detached from the world, when colourful fast-moving geometric shapes appear. These transient experiences have many various names. It usually seems, to the user, that some process worth experiencing is loading. Some people call it a “loading screen”. The experience can involve a feeling of being in some room, whereas the important part is on the other side of the wall. This psychological space was called a “waiting room”. Terence Mckenna, a DMT enthusiast, called it a “chrysanthemum” due to the flowery appearance of colourful geometrics. The appearance of the space can turn into “infinite variety of forms”, as if moving in some kind of tunnel consisting of various indescribable and never before seen geometric shapes.

Rick Strassman and his colleagues conducted a five-year-long DMT study at the University of New Mexico in the 1990s. The results provided insight about the quality of subjective psychedelic experiences. In this study, participants received the DMT dosage via intravenous injection and the findings suggested that different psychedelic experiences can occur, depending on the level of dosage. Lower doses (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg) produced somaesthetic and emotional responses, but not hallucinogenic experiences (e.g., 0.05 mg/kg had mild mood elevating and calming properties). In contrast, responses produced by higher doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) researchers labeled as "hallucinogenic" that elicited "intensely colored, rapidly moving display of visual images, formed, abstract or both". Comparing to other sensory modalities, the most affected was the visual. Participants reported visual hallucinations, fewer auditory hallucinations and specific physical sensations progressing to a sense of bodily dissociation, as well as to experiences of euphoria, calm, fear, and anxiety. These dose-dependent effects match well with anonymously posted "trip reports" online, where users report "breakthroughs" above certain doses. These "breakthrough" experiences often result with the user becoming completely or almost completely detached from reality (especially visually and auditorily), and thrust into "DMT hyperspace". It is here that most users report contact with entities, while even doses slightly under a breakthrough dose have far less extreme effects. Strassman also stressed the importance of the context where the drug has been taken. He claimed that DMT has no beneficial effects of itself, rather the context when and where people take it plays an important role.

Physical effects: spontaneous bodily sensations - the "body high" of DMT can be described as a pleasurable, all-encompassing glow. It maintains a consistent presence that quickly rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached. It is capable of becoming very powerful at higher doses and can remain for up to half an hour after the experience itself has ended; physical euphoria - It should be noted that this effect is not as reliably produced as it is with substances like stimulants or entactogens, and can just as easily manifest as physical discomfort for no apparent reason; changes in felt gravity - At higher breakthrough doses, physical feelings of being launched across vast distances at incredibly high speeds are commonly reported; spatial disorientation; changes in felt bodily form; physical autonomy; nausea; pupil dilation; increased heart rate; temperature regulation suppression; seizure; synaesthesia.

Cognitive effects: analysis enhancement; anxiety; déjà vu; delusion; ego replacement; emotion enhancement; cognitive euphoria; feelings of impending doom; increased music appreciation; memory suppression; ego death; mindfulness; multiple thought streams; novelty enhancement; personal bias suppression; rejuvenation; autonomous voice communication.
Visual and auditory effects: colour enhancement; pattern recognition enhancement; visual acuity enhancement; magnification; colour replacement; colour shifting; colour tinting; tracers; after images; recursion; scenery slicing; symmetrical texture repetition; environmental patterning; enhancements; distortions; hallucinations.
Other: machinescapes; transformations; internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - DMT produces high level internal hallucinations at appropriate doses more consistently than that of any other psychedelic. They are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme. External hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - These are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme; spirituality enhancement; existential self-realization; perception of eternalism; perception of self-design; perceived exposure to inner mechanics of consciousness; unity and interconnectedness.


The other stage of effects is "The Other Side", which is considered a climax of DMT trip and involves both fundamental hallucinatory and physical effects. Visualizations of internal and external
hallucinations occur. The hallucinations become as vivid as possible, clear, interactive, never-before-seen, spiritual and fantastic, sometimes religious (depending on environment and general attitude to DMT) surrealistic meaningless or transcendental, involving completely different topics. All hallucinations may be mixed in style, for example, internal hallucinations may be simultaneously present with external, visualization of geometric imagery may be accompanied by various scenarios and plots, beautiful changing landscapes, perspective hallucinations. The user can live through a different life within the action period of DMT. The sense of time may be altered up to a feeling of “real life lived in 10 minutes of DMT action”. At this very stage, users of dimethyltryptamine experience intense geometry of the seventh level or internal hallucinations of the fourth level. Though the experience varies significantly from person to person, the peak of effects is usually described by similar archetypes, scenarios, containing similar plot and meaning. As a rule, these scenarios are usually described to consist of “certain alternate reality, including autonomous entities, environments, landscapes of cosmic nature”. Autonomous entities during the DMT experience are considered some kind of sentient and typically behaved gods by users. They can be visualized completely differently: from inanimate objects like plants or gigantic spheres to anthropomorphic creatures, alien and humanoids. In case of DMT intake in religious environment, they often have the appearance of angels, indescribable monsters, shamans, ghosts, ancestor spirits, different kinds of mythological creatures. So, the autonomous creatures are one of the most incredible features of DMT space. In 2020 Alan Davis, a researcher from Roland Griffiths laboratory in The Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research Medical School, published results of the study, aimed at identifying types of communication experiences with entities present during a DMT trip. They offered DMT users to fill out the questionnaire and analyzed the answers. The researchers found that respondents reported that the most common descriptive labels for entities were creatures guiding them into the other world, spirits, aliens or some animate helper. These entities had the following qualities: sentiency, intelligence, goodwill, it was either present simultaneously in two realities or in all existing realities and universes beyond space and time. The most common labels used for their description in the descending order were: “Creature”, “Guide”, “Spirit”, “Alien”, “Helper”, “Angel”, and “Elf”. Oddly enough, insects and reptiles are not uncommon. Also, at this stage DMT users report feelings of amusement (45-70%), excessive trust (60-75%), surprise (90%), unmotivated love (45-50%), kindness and friendship (35-45%), fear(40-60%), sadness and distrust (5-10%), anger and disgust (1-3%). The endgame stage of DMT effects is called "Drifting Down" and it is characterized by gradual withdrawal from the observed scenario of effects. In the forefront there is some physical euphoria, the sense of presence in the real world/reality; the imagery disappears, light geometry of the third level, feelings of delight and awe appear. The experience is memorized, and the user tries to interpret these memories, but the interpretation abilities are impaired due to certain cognitive disorders at this stage. Geometric objects may decrease in their severity within half an hour. The user returns to their familiar world. At this stage transpersonal effects of perception take place: internalism, existential self-fulfillment, light auditory or visual distortions without geometry, there may be light physical disorders in form of tremor or muscle convulsions, physical euphoria and feeling “lightweight, residual spatial disorientation gradually disappears. Sometimes at this stage anxiety and restlessness, a sense of impending doom can occur. However, as a rule, at this stage only residual positive effects remain, which can last up to 1,5 hours until their complete disappearance.

During the DMT effects comedown, bodily sensations of relaxation and euphoria are expected to gradually disappear. This is similar to an indistinct sensation of a fallen asleep limb coming back to life. You can also feel exposed and vulnerable, as if you see the world for the first time. Unlike LSD or mushrooms, visual effects stop when you come down – as if you leave “DMT world”, visual effects stop existing. DMT decline is different from other drugs in a sense that you don't end up in a reality that you already know. These are completely new feelings, as if you’ve to waken up from a dream with new eyes, and everything is born again. This feeling gradually disappears within the next couple of days, sometimes a couple of weeks. It is frequent to have a feeling of excessive happiness and love for living after the experience. Some users report revival of new way of thinking and everyday life. Activation of all your senses may be a reviving part of DMT comedown. If you have just been on a journey, possibly, to other spheres, there are a lot of practices, which can help you tune in to awareness of your body and sense of self. Allow the thoughts that are passing through your mind to simply be present as you are in your surroundings. Depending on the environment which you are in, some options mentioned below can suit you. Throughout the DMT comedown, visual effects disappear from your imagination, however, there may be ecologically pleasant objects in your environment, which can you look at. If you are at home, a houseplant can trigger a new feeling of amazement in you. A book, with pictures of such psychedelic artists as Alex Gray or Andrew Johns, may have a new meaning for you. Even such an ordinary thing as the view from your window can open up new perspectives never before known. Possibly, you have been listening to music during the trip, now you may develop interest in a new genre. Think of some natural sounds such as rain or quiet the roar of ocean waves. You may also enjoy sounds of brain waves, for example, teta- or delta waves to imitate fabulous condition and promote relaxation. After smoking DMT, you will possibly want to touch your body or do some light stretching or yoga. Make sure that you've restored balance and start in a sitting position to first activate your blood flow. Another pleasant sensory experience is a hot bath with salt for soaking and candles for dim lighting. If the water doesn't you’re your attention, a relaxing alternative is to wrap yourself in a warm, fluffy blanket. Some traditions encourage a detox diet before the ayahuasca ceremony. It is for the purpose of clearing your body from any toxins, which can disturb the process of cleansing and distract you from the experience. This diet usually excludes foods such as sugar, salt, red meat and caffeine, as well as seasonings such as ginger and garlic. During the comedown after ayahuasca ceremony, the followers of some traditions offer salt to reconnect with some Earth minerals. Dates and figs are also rich earth foods that help you warm up your stomach. To activate the sense of smell, light incense, sage or distribute essential oils that you like.

As for delayed psychological effects, the study of Hoasca Project Grob it has revealed that all alcoholic, depressive and anxiety disorders disappeared after connecting to UDV, and on neuropsychological testingа (WHO-UCLA Auditory Learning Verbal Memory Test) DMT users have shown higher results in terms of word memorization, and also the best results in identifying words, delayed recall both immediately and after interference. Long-term use of DMT doesn't negatively affect neuropsychological function. In studies of Barbosa et al. using questionnaires SF-36, TCI-125, CIS-R before the trip and during six months after, there hasn't been identified any negative effects on quality of life, most users have demonstrated a significant improvement in their metal state. It has also been revealed that users of this substance scored more points in social and emotional functioning. Eventually, after numerous studies on delayed effects of long-term use of DMT, it has been concluded that long-term use of the substance doesn't have any significant effect on neuropsychological functioning and can have a positive influence in terms of substance abuse and mood. In studies carried out by Bouso in 2012, it was identified that users of DMT performed much better on cognitive tests and social well-being tests, and there was no evidence of a detrimental effect on mental health and signs of cognitive impairment among them. Also, before and after onset of DMT effects an acute enhancement of divergent thinking occurs, which can assist psychotherapeutic interventions. In terms of various studies many DMT users have reported increase in self-awareness, that they have become more loving and sympathetic during their lives, that they have more creative and other various interests, especially to nature, that their inner world has become more meaningful, some call it "enlightenment" and the only thing that has made them live and enjoy every little thing in life. Many DMT users had issues regarding alcohol and substance abuse, aggressive behavior, behaved impulsively, disrespectfully, oppositionally and disrespectfully, after DMT trip, however, most of the above-mentioned issues leveled for a long time, they also note an improvement in short-term and long-term memory, attention concentration, positive mood.
Dr. Jacques Mabit, managing a narcological clinic in Peru, which uses ayahuasca as a part of treatment, reports a huge potential of the substance and numerous positive effects, such as increase in tolerance to frustration, self-esteem, intellectual abilities and concentration, reduction of anxiety, facilitation of individualization processes. According to his words, DMT allows users to see “beyond their point of view, increasing their exposure to new perspectives”. A great number of his patients report DMT to promote introspection and self-knowledge, forgiveness without guilt, recognition of mistakes, improvement in the decision-making, motivation to change, increase in the quality of life and the number of dreams, reflections on life as part of nature and the discovery of previously unknown dimensions of life. There is also a great amount of inconsistent information on whether there is an increase in endogenous DMT levels in people with psychotic disorders and, to this date, there is no convincing data on this issue. Checkley assumes levels of DMT to increase during the psychotic episode, but to level on stabilization of the mental state. Based on the frequency of psychotic episodes in UDV, it can be assumed that DMT is not a trigger of psychosis. One of the studies demonstrates that ayahuasca at a dose of 1 mg/kg doesn’t affect subjective quality of sleep, its onset or maintenance, measuring by polysomnography, it reduces the REM phase and increases the power of slow-wave sleep. Also, in studies on animals, DMT demonstrates a significant decrease in P50 suppression (sensory capture test in the study of sensory and sensorimotor gating), and vomiting, as a rule, occurs due to an increase in the level of serotonin stimulating the vagus nerve centrally, and diarrhea is a consequence of excessive stimulation of peripheral hydroxytryptamine receptors of the gastrointestinal tract.

In studies on DMT effects on different systems, it has been revealed that DMT significantly increases levels of GH and prolactin, which return back to initial levels at 360 minutes. Cortisol is at its maximum at 60 minutes, and it returns back to initial level at 5-6 hours. Changes in GH and prolactin concentrations are associated with them being under the influence of serotonergic system. DMT significantly increases total number of lymphocytes after 1.5 hours after administration, however, there is a significant decrease in CD3 and CD4-lymphocytes after 2 hours and there is no effect on the quantitative component of CD8 and CB19 lymphocytes, there is an increase in NK cells, and with repeated use, there is no development of tolerance or sensitization by the immune system. DMT acts on peripheral 5НТ2А-receptors on leukocytes, indirectly affecting cytokine secretion and cell differentiation. An increase in the level of glucocorticoids can have a modulating or inhibitory effect on the immune system. DMT significantly increases levels of interferon-β and interferon- y in NK cells, which is, presumably, associated with its effects on σ-1 receptors. In studies in vitro on primary dendritic cells derived from human monocytes, DMT significantly decreases production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) and the production of chemokine IL-8, while the latter increases the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; these effects are also realized by the substance acting on σ-1 receptor. And, finally, regarding the study of DMT affecting the immune system, it has been proved that it reduces the ability of T-helpers 1 and 18 to activate the immune response, and also there is a dose-dependant decrease in CD8 activity, B-cells proliferation and NK cells function. It is interesting to note that DMT induces dose-dependant increase in pupil size, usually at 180th minute it can dilate up to 4.8 mm and return to normal at 5-6 hours of action. The average amplitude of the pupillary reflex decreases, and the latency of the light pupillary reflex increases, which is associated with anticholinergic effect. Presumably, the substrate of this mechanism is the noradrenergic inhibition of parasympathetic transmission to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, which, in turn, is responsible for the constriction of the iris. In studies of DMT affecting body temperature, it has been revealed that the substance induces a statistically significant decrease within the first hour, followed by gradual increase in body temperature (the body temperature can increase by 10-15% and return to normal in 6-7 hours). However, these changes, including body temperature increase, are observed in a small number of users, and the decrease in body temperature occurs in most cases.


Studies of Riba and Strassman on DMT affecting cardiovascular system has shown the maximum increase in diastolic arterial pressure by 10 mmHg after fifteen minutes and the maximum increase
in systolic index by 8 mmHg after 75 minutes after DMT administration at a dose 0.85 mg/kg. Heart rate increases by 5 bpm about the first hour since administration, however, in 20% of users heart rate value can reach 150 bpm, which is associated with many factors, one of them - the emergence of short-term experiences. Return of these indicators back to initial levels is associated with an increase in central 5-HT levels, which mediates cardiac response through the vagus nerve. DMT induces dose-dependent increase in HR and bpm on intravenous administration, faster and more intensely than on oral administration. The dose 0.4 mg/kg intravenously increases bpm on average by 26-30 in two minutes, SBP - by 35 mmHg and DBP - by 30 mmHg. In studies on histological sections of vascular tissues in animals administrated DMT, flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells, a significant increase in the thickness of the vascular wall and the wall thickness-to-lumen-diameter ratio were revealed. As is the case with any substance of this group, which is associated with similar hemodynamic changes, DMT can cause negative cardiac effects, though the risk of this happening is minimal, but it is still there and, as a rule, it is associated with physical activity and the presence of a provoking factor (chronic disease or genetic predisposition to some pathological conditions), or joint use of two potentiating psychoactive substances. DMT is assumed to prolong “brain viability”. In publications of Frecska as of 2013 it is mentioned that during physical agony signals, lungs produce large amounts of DMT (as a rule, by leveling inhibitors INMT) and release DMT into arterial blood within a couple of seconds. On entering the blood DMT doesn't undergo degradation because circulating MAO enzymes (extracellular) deaminate exclusively primary amines. Since DMT is a tertiary amine, it reaches the brain with minimum degradation. Due to this mechanism, it is possible to potentially support brain viability for longer period of time without its own independent synthesis of DMT. Exogenous DMT-like psychedelic effects are similar to subjective reports of people surviving clinical death. DMT, possibly, participates in the process of near-death visual experiences. INMT concentration in placenta is much higher. If the INMT level correlates with DMT synthesis, then mediated σ-1 receptor activity induces changes in neuron plasticity, observed in newborns. Selective agonists of σ-1 receptors has shown to protect the brain from excitotoxic perinatal damage and ischemic neurodegeneration in neonatal striatum. INMT expression is important for successful pregnancy. It is highly probable that DMT can play an important role in positive the course of pregnancy and protective effects in this process. As for DMT affecting the processes of oncogenesis, it is known that decreased regulation of the expression of the gene responsible for INMT synthesis is associated with cancer. It is considered a potential gene-candidate able to prevent cancer progression. INMT expression is associated with a sharp decrease in the frequency of malignant tumors' recurrence. There is a huge probability that DMT can potentially have a direct effect of suppressing the tumor.

Maybe, the most incredible aspect of DMT experience is not something visual. This is a feeling of deep introduction, confidence in the existence of DMT space. It can seem that DMT is a base of reality, “game A”, and everyday reality is a game “B”. It can provoke a feeling in many people that our day-to-day life is nothing but simulation or a dream. Scientists have recently quantified just how “more real than real” DMT space feels. In this very study, it has been assessed how much “more real than real” this experience feels for the participants. During the experiment, DMT space felt on average little more than 50% more real, than everyday reality. After the experiment, this became a little more than 25% real than the everyday experience. Feeling of 100% more real would mean that it feels 2 times more real, that is why 50% is a significant increase. Positive emotional state, confidence, closeness and realness can be connected. Plato equated the good with the real. Possibly, this connection is embedded in our brain in a way that DMT allows us to experience it. DMT trip doesn't last for a long time, and many psychonauts are looking for a way to prolong it. Though the DMT itself is not active on oral administration, ayahuasca allows for its slow release into the brain through the digestive system. It slows the perception, but also alters its nature. The underlying text that was trying to describe ayahuasca experience is. ”The Antipodes of the Mind” by Benny Shenon. Shenon is a cognitive psychologist of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has a big experience with amazon beer. He characterizes this experience to have organic imagery full of snakes and jaguars. Comparing to sci-fi intensity of pure DMT experience, it is currently unknown, what gives the experience the natural imagery. Ayahuasca contains other psychoactive compounds in addition to DMT, which, probably, contributes to this effect, but in what way is still unclear. Exquisite palaces are usual phenomenon which is characteristic of ayahuasca trip, it can reflect three-dimensional geometric effects of pure DMT. Another common experience is a meeting with a spiritual guide – a woman, which is often called mother-ayahuasca.

Considering chemical similarities of DMT and psilocybin, some people claimed the latter to be as orally active DMT. At high doses, psilocybin creates the experience which are similar to that of DMT. Terence Mckenna advocated for using 5 g of dried mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis in complete darkness for connecting the entities that you meet during the DMT trip. The deceased Kilindi Iyi, defender of martial arts and psychedelics, experimented on dosage, 10 times higher than this, and found out that the experience is very similar to DMT trip. He described the effects as falling through a subatomic sci-fi environment with the appearance of Hemet (Ancient Egypt). DMT experience is so astonishing that it encourages some scientists to develop new cosmologies to understand its meaning. Neurobiologist Andrew Gallimore, the author of “Alien Information Theory” claims that the world is a simulation, where DMT allows us to temporarily escape from. Rick Strassman, the author of DMT: The Spirit Molecule and DMT and The Soul of Prophecy, states in his recent book that DMT can be a divine communication channel built into us by the God of Abraham. In 2016, these researchers came together to publish a method of intravenous delivery of DMT, which can be used for prolongation of DMT effects for any period of time. It would allow for conducting of experiments to explore the nature of DMT space in detail. Nowadays, there is no evidence for dangerous consequences of DMT use in healthy people. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to determine whether DMT is a completely safe substance. DMT effects can lead to a person stumbling, falling and getting seriously injured because of loss of control over their body. Dangerous contamination of NaOH mixed with small particles of plant matter can also cause yellowing, and it usually makes DMT of a brownish colour. It can cause lung problems on inhalation of vapour or stomach problems on oral ingestion. Extremely complicated trips can leave the person with post-traumatic stress disorder. There is no published evidence on DMT overdose. However, according to the data of The American Association of Poison Control Centers, DMT is associated with coma and respiratory arrest. It is unknown whether these cases were due to an overdose by the combination of the substances or the DMT alone. DMT action usually lasts from 5 to 30 minutes. Unlike other hallucinogens, such as OEV (visual imagery on opened eyes) and CEV (hallucinations on closed eyes). «Machine Elves», as Terence Mckenna would say, are sometimes present as visual imagery. Just like other psychedelics, DMT is associated with a condition known as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), which is the case for 1% of psychedelics users. HPPD can manifest as visual snow, similar to static in analog television, when there is no signal. However, this is not a serious problem for the community of users, as it usually disappears over time. Considering the above facts, cannabis prolongs this state.

Methods of use and doses.
DMT itself is not active on oral administration because monoamine oxidases in the intestine quickly destroy the molecule. That is why pure DMT should be smoked or vaporized for it to be active. Smoking of DMT is associated with intense experience, characterized by rapid onset, plato and comedown. After inhaling DMT vapor, molecules of the substance enter the systemic blood flow from pulmonary capillaries. Then they cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to serotonin receptors in the central nervous system. If oral administration of DMT is a marathon, then vaporized DMT is a sprint. DMT experience can be considered at 3 dose ranges. Light dose considered to be less than 20 mg. This is a good starting point for beginners, to understand what DMT is. You will feel such threshold effects as pleasant buzzing in the body and almost complete absence of visual distortions at the bottom of this range. You will feel visual distortions, visual patterns on open eyes, intense colours, and, possibly, ringing in the ears coming from the top. Regular dose is 20-40 mg, which doesn't involve full spectrum of DMT action. It may seem as if your wormhole shot through your body, and it is consuming you, tearing you apart. Visually, this space consists from rapidly-moving geometry such as rotating fractals or kaleidoscopic patterns. The last level, reached by the doses more than 40 mg considered high. It will seem that you broke through to the other side to alternate reality, which seems more real than the real one. Besides intense geometric visual effects, this universe of hyperspace includes interaction with autonomous entities, which may communicate visually or telepathically. Despite your time perception dramatically changing during the experience, the total duration of the trip rarely exceeds 15 minutes. No matter what experience you seek, you should always be sure of exact dosing. One way to do it is with a sensitive milligram scale. Revolutionary experience can be reached within 25 or 30 mg while using highly effective methods of vaporizing (such as applying a smear). As for the methods of smoking, breakthroughs usually happen on inhaling 50-60 mg and more due to DMT loss because of shallow inhales or undesirable burning. As for the revolutionary experience, the fewer hits you take, the better. If you can smoke the whole DMT dose in one go to get a fast breakthrough, it is ideal. Breakthroughs usually happen after 2-3 hits. However, it becomes harder to control the process yourself because you start to detach from reality. As for microdosing DMT, it is used as well, but you should always make sure to use pure product. To make sure of that you can use special tests, for example, a test with the Ehrlich reagent. Dose 2-5 mg is suitable for that. DMT microdosing effects include increased attention, increased concentration, relief of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as improvement of general well-being.

«Freebase» method: DMT is put into a glass tube and is heated for vaporization of the crystals due to thermal conductivity or convection (depending on the evaporator). Put the crystals onto the center of the screen evenly. Be sure to keep crystals away from the edges of the screen, so they can't easily drop through the net on the bottom of the bowl, when they melt. When you are ready for the trip, hold the flame above the screen but don`' allow it to directly contact the DMT crystals. The point is to use the heat from the flame, not the flame itself, to increase the temperature just enough to vaporize the crystals, not burning them. You should experiment with the right distance to the flame to get vaporization. You should hold the flame a few inches away from the bowl, then bring it closer to it, then inhale slowly and deeply. While you are heating, you should rotate the tube back and forth, fanning DMT for it to melt evenly. You shouldn't inhale sharp and fast, it is necessary not to hurry, otherwise you risk creating very intense smoke. As DMT vaporizes, you will see DMT smoke entering the tube when you slowly inhale. You should let the smoke fill your lungs not less than 10 seconds. After the exhalation and deep inhale for oxygenation, this process can be repeated a couple of times.

«Sandwich» method: DMT is smoked by putting it between ashes and smoking herbs. The upper layer acts as a buffer, which prevents burning and wasting of DMT. The lower layer doesn't let liquefied DMT flow through the net and lower opening of the bowl. First, put a metallic net into the bowl, and then put a layer of herbs or ashes on it. You want the lower layer to be packed and thick, so that liquid DMT will meet resistance on melting. Then evenly pour DMT on this layer leaving the base free of the substance, complete the sandwich with a protective layer of herbs or ashes. The upper layer should be thin and loose, so you won't smoke a lot of inactive herbs. When you are ready to burn it, tilt the bowl and tap the upper layer with a lighter just enough to cherry it. Then put the lighter to the side. As the cherry runs from the corner of the bowl when you inhale, the heat will vaporize the DMT under it. Inhale slowly and deeply, until your lungs fill with smoke, then hold for 20-30 seconds. After a full exhale and inhale of fresh air, you can hit again if it’s necessary. Breakthrough is usually reached after 2-3 hits.

«Dab Rig» method: DMT can be effectively vaporized by a special setup, similar to how cannabis extract is applied. While using this method, free base DMT falls onto a hot surface and allows for its vaporization. There is a low risk to burn DMT, so this method required exact and careful dosing. Due to its efficiency, it is recommended to start with half of the dose, which would be used by sandwich method. This is to prevent you from ingesting a dose higher than it is necessary. First, weigh your DMT beforehand with accurate scales, and then put it on something that you can easily pour with, for example, a cloth or a little spoon. Using a butane burner, heat the nail until it becomes red, then let it cool off for 20-30 seconds (until it becomes transparent). Since every nail is different, you need to experiment to choose the optimal temperature for vaporization. If the nail is too hot, DMT can burn, and the vapor will cause coughing. DMT is vaporized at 160 °C. Before applying DMT on a nail, carefully inhale during a couple of seconds to prevent the vapor from going into the air. Then apply DMT on a nail, carefully inhale and put a cap of carbohydrates on it. After 5-10 seconds of inhalation, you should get a full DMT dose in one vaporization. Hold your breath for 10-20 seconds, then pass the equipment (very hot!) to your guide, who will safely put it away.


One of the priority tasks of a successful trip is a choice of a setting. If you think that you will be comfortable at home, then this is the best option. It is necessary for the setting to as comfortable as possible, it must not be associated with negativity, and it should provide all the necessary amenities. Another alternative is a home of your friend. You should smoke only in safe, comfortable places, where nobody will disturb you. An environment with little indirect sunlight in a safe, natural place can induce extraordinary visual effects. Rooms with dim lighting, a bed or comfortable sofa with incense burning nearby, are also ideal. Make sure that you won't be disturbed by sudden visits, responsibilities or phone calls. If you are not alone, many people prefer to maintain silence to better concentrate on the experience. As is with all psychedelics, having a sitter is a good idea. Knowing that there is someone for you can help you to dissolve a little deeper into the trip. Some trips are harder than others. And it can be difficult to understand what you are experiencing. With a reliable trip companion, you can be sure that you are safe. When you enter DMT trance, you usually lose control over your motor skills, which is why you should take measures not to drop anything hot on yourself or the people and things around you. Aside from free space, the sitter can help you with the smoking process. You should ask this person to take the hot lighter and tube from you, when you feel like the trip is coming. If you don't have anyone with you, make sure to place your smoking device comfortably (to avoid breakage and injury). Wherever you are, make sure to wear comfortable clothes according to the temperature, which allows free movement. Be ready to lie or sit for the whole trip around the DMT world; make a nest out of blankets and pillows for your comfort. Avoid any form of DMT if you are taking antidepressants, or you have any diseases of the cardiovascular system, including hypertension. Also, you have mental disorder, especially the ones, which require medications. You can realize this experience during many months. Develop a mindset of openness, presence and positivity by meditating before DMT intake. Try to pay attention to your inner feelings and make a couple of deep breaths to calm your mind and body. Clarifying your intentions regarding what you are hoping to gain from the trip can have an important role in your insightful journey to the DMT world. For example, if you can remember some problems from your real life, which you are trying to understand and reconsider. Remember, that you should fully give in to DMT. No matter how mysterious or bizarre things are, everything will be fine. To begin this experience of expanding consciousness is an act of growth and self-love.
DMT interactions with different psychoactive substances and toxicology.
The recreational use of psychedelics often results in what is called “bad trips”, characterised by symptoms like anxiety, palpitations, and visual distortions. “Too little” DMT was also associated with unpleasant feelings, not allowing the consumer to achieve the desired development of the characteristic perceptual effects, only giving them a tensely dysphoric state. However, it is sometimes difficult to assess the potential hazardous effects caused by the recreational consumption of DMT, since the drug is commonly used in combination with other illicit substances, such as psychostimulants, depressants, narcotics, cannabis, and alcohol. By virtue of MAO inhibition, severe adverse effects can occur when ayahuasca or the b‐carbolines alone are used concomitantly with selective 5‐HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as antidepressants, as this combination leads to accumulation of 5‐HT at the synapses, resulting in a potentially fatal condition known as 5‐ HT syndrome. Other compounds that may have serotonergic effects (e.g., lithium and triptans through the activation of serotonin receptors, levodopa through the increase in serotonin release) can also precipitate this fatal condition and should be avoided with DMT. Vomiting and diarrhoea are often reported as adverse effects resulting from DMT consumption, which may be due to increased central 5‐HT stimulation of the vagus nerve and peripheral stimulation of the intestine. All of these effects are, however, considered to be transient, only persisting for one or two days, and easily manageable. The treatment of tryptamine/serotonin intoxication is merely supportive and targeted at the symptoms. Activated charcoal can be beneficial when consumption is through the oral route; benzodiazepines to treat agitation, hypertension, and hallucinations; treatment with b‐adrenergic antagonist when the patient has unstable vital signs. When consumed within the normal doses, solely serotonergic reactions are documented. Excluding the cases of co‐ingestion with other substances (e.g., consumption with 5‐MeO‐DMT), there are no reports on deaths directly attributed to DMT. The only two cases of death reported in the literature that involved ayahuasca/DMT/harmala alkaloids were of a 71‐year old diabetic female who consumed B. caapi mixed with tobacco leaves (no information on quantities) and a 25‐year‐old man who consumed herbal extracts containing harmala alkaloids and tryptamines (no information on quantities), with no anatomical cause of death found in the autopsies. In the first case, blood analysis revealed only the presence of nicotine (710–1900 ng/mL) and the cause of death was determined as acute nicotine intoxication. In the second case, reported by Sklerov et al., the following concentration ranges were obtained in the blood analysis: 0.01–0.02 mg/L for DMT, 0.04–0.07 mg/L for harmaline, 0.08–0.17 mg/L for harmine, 0.24–0.38 for THH and 1.20–1.88 mg/L for 5‐MeO‐DMT. The cause of death was undetermined. However, a few cases of suspected deaths involving ayahuasca consumption have been reported in the media. In a recent study, Colaço et al. submitted Wistar rats to a chronic 28‐day treatment using the same ayahuasca samples as a previous referred study at doses 2 times higher (corresponding to 4.28 mL/kg of ayahuasca, 0.52 mg/kg of DMT, 5.16 mg/kg of harmine, 0.342 mg/kg of harmaline, and 0.66 mg/kg of THH) than the common ritual dose of ayahuasca. Haematological analysis (i.e., haemoglobin, total haematocrit, erythrogram, leukogram, corpuscular volumes), and biochemical analysis for hepatic function (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), renal function (urea and serum creatine), and tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase) were performed, with no reports on toxic effects. Furthermore, a one‐year study comparing regular ayahuasca users with controls showed no indication that long‐term ayahuasca use could induce psychologic maladjustment, mental health deterioration, or cognitive impairment. No decreased cognitive function nor increased mental health issues were associated with populations who have a life‐time use of these mind‐altering substances, particularly as part of religious ceremonies. Other rodent studies allowed to estimate that the LD50 values for humans are approximately of 1.6 mg/kg for DMT i.v. administration (a total dose of 112 mg for a typical 70 kg individual), and 8 mg/kg for DMT per os (a dose of 560 mg), which is significantly higher than the average ceremonial dose of DMT (27 mg), giving DMT/ayahuasca a safety margin of approximately 20‐fold. Low risk when used together with DMT (or increased/decreased of DMT effects): mushrooms, PCP, LSD, mescaline, Dox, NBOMes, 2C-x, 2C-T-x, aMT, 5-MeO-xxT, ketamine, MXE, DXM, N20, MDMA, MAOls, caffeine, opioids, alcohol, GHB/GBL, benzodiazepines, SSRls. High risk when used together with DMT: amphetamines, cocaine, mephedrone, aPVP, MXE, cannabis, mesaton, salbutamol, adrenaline, tramadol.

As a Schedule I controlled substance, DMT can be seen as an addictive substance, associated with substantial health risks. Notwithstanding, studies have been contradicting this, as no compulsive drug‐seeking precipitated by consumption of DMT or ayahuasca has been reported in humans. Psychedelics, including DMT and ayahuasca, are, in fact, seen as safer substances than cocaine, opiates, or even the widely used nicotine and alcohol, with the advantage of lacking the abuse potential, characteristic of these former drugs. As reviewed by Gable et al., reports of abstinence syndrome after termination of DMT consumption are unknown. Studies with repeated administration of DMT to volunteers have seen little or no drug tolerance. Comparing long‐term users and occasional consumers of ayahuasca, Bouso et al. found that following ingestion of a single dose, both groups were associated with lower scores on working memory and performance improvement, but only the occasional users had an impaired performance in strategic planning. Thus, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca by long‐term users was associated with drug‐induced neuromodulatory or compensatory effects, resulting in reduced cognitive incapacitation. Further, reports on tolerance solely included slight changes in the release of growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and prolactin, which were found to be decreased following a second administration, and lower response in the systolic blood pressure and heart rate. DMT did not elicit tolerance in animal models like squirrel monkeys and cats. Additionally, LSD is not capable to produce cross‐tolerance to DMT, contrary to what happens with other classic hallucinogens like mescaline or psilocybin. The absence of cross‐tolerance suggests a distinguished pharmacodynamic behaviour for DMT, which makes it a quite unique substance among classic hallucinogens.
Documentaries and videos:
Below are some of the most recommended DMT retreat centers:
Arkana Spiritual Center in Iquitos, Peru - https://www.arkanainternational.com/

The Healing Tree Center in Cusco, Peru - https://healingtreeayahuasca.com/

Dreamglade in Iquitos, Peru - https://www.dreamglade.com/

Spirit Vine Ayahuasca Retreat Center in Itacaré, Brazil - https://spiritvineretreats.com/

Nada Brahma Healing Center in Alajuela, Costa Rica - https://nadabrahmahealingcenter.com/

Gaia Sagrada in Cuenca, Ecuador - https://gaiasagrada.com/

DMT. Part I. General pharmacology

Synthesis of DMT from indole (experimental)

Synthesis 5-MeO-DMT from 5-MeO-Tryptamine

Synthesis 5-Meo-Tryptamine from Melatonin

Synthesis of 5‐MeO-DMT via Fischer Indole

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